Shri Govind Guru University Godhra

History of Gujarat

Gujarat – The Land of the Legends
Gujarat is a State in northwestern India, on the border with Pakistan and Rajasthan in the north east, Madhya Pradesh in the east, and Maharashtra and the Union territories of Diu, Daman, Dadra and Nagar Haveli in the south. The Arabian Sea borders the state both to the west and the south west.

Gujarat : The State took it’s name from the Gujara, the land of the Gujjars, who ruled the area during the 700’s and 800’s.

Ancient Roots
The first settlers in the State of Gujarat were Gujjars who happened to be an ethnic group of India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. Although their originis remain uncertain, the clan appeared in northern India and in Saurashtra about the time of the Huna invasion. The name of the tribe was ‘sanskritized’ to ‘Gurjara’ who followed the main religions of Hinduism, Islam, Sikkism and Christianity.

However, the earliest Archeological traces indicate the Indus Valley Civilization as historical relics with the stone age settlements are found in Gujarat around Sabarmati and Mahi rivers. Its roots are also in the Harappan traces found at Lothal, Rampur, Amri and other places.

Ancient Gujarat was ruled by the Maurya Dynasty. Emperor Chandragupta Maurya conquered a number of states in Gujarat while his grandson, King Ashoka extended his domain in Gujarat. The reigns of the first three Mauryas were significant but with Ashoka’s death in 232 B C the Mauryan empire began to crumble,leading to political defragmentation. The Shungas who succeeded the Mauryas tried, unsuccessfully, to uphold the semblance of political unity.

After the fall of the Maurya Empire, the Sakas or Scynthians controlled the region from A.D. 130 to 390. Under Rudra-daman, their empire contained Malwa (in Madhya Pradesh), Saurashtra, Kutchh and Rajasthan. During the 300s and 400s, the area formed a part of the Gupta Empire which in turn was succeeded by the Maitraka Dynasty. It was during the rule of Dhruvasena Maitrak that the great Chinese traveler and philosopher Huien Tsang visited India in 640AD.

Between the decline of the Mauryan power and the coming of Saurashtra under the sway of the Samprati Mauryas of Ujjain, there was a Greek incursion into Gujarat led by Demetrius.

Three royal races of Hindus successively ruled over, namely, the Chawura, Solanki’, and Baghilah races. The total number of individuals belonging to the tribes who held power amounted to twenty-three, and they retained possession of the country for five hundred and seventy-five years – previous to the period when Gujarat became subject to the Mohammedans. The Chawura tribe ruled one hundred and ninety-six years after which the power passed into the hands of the Solankhi tribe in the manner described.

It was during the 900s that the Solanki Dynasty came to power. Under the Solanki Dynasty, Gujarat reached to its greatest extent. It is believed that the Gujjars belonged to this Solanki Dynasty because Pratiharas, the Paramaras and the Solankis were imperial Gujjars. Ancient Gujarat’s last Hindu rulers were the Solanki clan of Rajputs from 960 AD to 1243 AD. It is also learnt, Karandev of the Vaghela dynasty was the last Hindu ruler of Gujarat and he was overthrown by the superior forces of Allauddin Khilji from Delhi in 1297.

Medieval Invasions
The Muslim rule continued for 400 years. Gujarat’s Muslim governor Zafar Khan Muzaffar asserted his independence, and established the first Muslim sultanate in Gujarat. He took advantage of the weak rulers of Delhi prevailing at the time. He declared independence and assumed the title of Muzaffar Shah. His successor, Ahmed I, the first independent Muslim ruler of Gujarat, found Ahmedabad in 1411 on the banks of the Sabarmati river.

Prior to this, Mahmud of Ghazni invaded Gujarat, A.D. 1026. He had vowed to invade India in order to destroy idolatry, kill the kafirs, capture prisoners of war and plunder the vast wealth for which Gujarat was known. Later, Allaudin Khilji invaded Gujarat in 1298 A.D.

Sultanate of Gujarat remained independent until 1576 when the Mughal emperor Akbar conquered it and annexed it to the Mughal Empire. The Mughal Emperor Akbar conquered Malwa and Gujarat in 1570s. The Mughals ruled for about 2 centuries till the streak was terminated by the Marathas in the mid 18th century. Chhatrapati Shivaji, the great Maratha ruler conquered Gujarat with his military skill.

Influencing Modernity
In 1600’s, the Dutch, French, English and Portuguese – all established bases along the coast of the region acquiring several enclaves along the Gujarati coast, including Daman and Diu as well as Dadra and Nagar Haveli.

The British East India Company established a factory in Surat in 1614, which formed their first base in India, but it was eclipsed by Bombay after the British acquired it from Portugal in 1668. The Company wrested control of much of Gujarat from the Marathas during the Second Anglo-Maratha War. Many local rulers, notably the Maratha Gaekwads of Baroda (Vadodara), made a separate peace treaty with the British, and acknowledged British sovereignty in return for retaining local self-rule.

Gujarat was placed under the political authority of the Bombay Presidency, with the exception of Baroda state, which had a direct relationship with the Governor-General of India. From 1818 to 1947, most of present-day Gujarat, including Kathiawar, Kutch, and northern and eastern Gujarat were divided into dozens of princely states, but several districts in central and southern Gujarat, namely Ahmedabad, Broach (Bharuch), Kaira, Panch Mahals, and Surat, were ruled directly by British officials.

A new era began with the Independence movement started by leaders like Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Morarji Desai, K.M. Munshi, Narhari Parikh, Mahadev Desai, Mohanlal Pandya, Bhulabhai Desai and Ravi Shankar Vyas all who hailed from Gujarat. Gujarat became a place for some of the most popular revolts, including the Satyagrahas in Kheda, Bardoli, Borsad and the Salt Satyagraha.

Mahagujarat Movement
After the Independence, in 1948, a Mahagujarat conference took place to integrate the entire Gujarati speaking population under one administrative body and on May 1, 1960, the Bombay State split into the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat. The term ‘Mahagujarat’ encompassed the whole Gujarati speaking area including Gujarat, Saurashtra and Kutchh. For the first time after the Sultanate, Gujarat was once again autonomous.

Post Independence and Politics
After gaining independence in 1947, the Indian National Congress party (INC) ruled the Bombay state (which included present-day Gujarat and Maharashtra). Congress continued to govern Gujarat after the state’s creation in 1960. During and after India’s State of Emergency of 1975-1977, public support for the Congress Party eroded, but COngress continued to hold government until 1995.

Gujarat has had 14 different Chief Ministers since its formation in 1960. Dr. Jivraj Narayan Mehta 1 May 1960 – 19 September 1963 of Indian National Congress was the first Chief Minister. In the 1995 Assembly Polls, the Congress lost to the BJP and Keshubhai Patel came to power.

In 2001, following the loss of 2 assembly seats in by-elections, Shri Keshubhai Patel resigned and yielded power to Shri Narendra Modi. The BJP retained a majority in the 2002 election, and Shri Narendra Modi has served as Chief Minister of the state since 7 October 2001 to 21st May 2014

“Govind Guru University is a tribute to the great tribal reformist” Gujarat CM on the inauguration of new university at Godhra

Gujarat Chief Minister Smt. Anandiben Patel today inaugurated Govind Guru University to be commenced at tribal dominated Vinzol village in Godhra in central Gujarat.

In her inaugural speech, the CM said that there was a time when governments used to take unlimited time to put the decision into effect. Now, by breaking the old style of typical government functioning, this government takes immediate action for speedy results. This new university at Godhra, which is being inaugurated within few weeks time after taking decision, is a classic example of the same, she added.

On this occasion, Smt. Patel shared that over 1000 tribals were killed by Britishers in Jallianwala Bagh like massacre during a peaceful protest led by Shri Govind Guru. She went on to say that the bloodbath that took place at Jallianwala Bagh is there in the history of Indian Independence, but unfortunately the sacrifice made by tribals has been forgotten and there is no mention of this incident in our history books. She also recalled the tribute paid by then CM Shri Narendra Modi by building his memorial at Mangarh hills in Panchmahal district. She added that the university, named after him, is a tribute to the great reformist and tribal martyrs.

Talking about the newly inaugurated university, the CM said that this university will provide great ease to the students of about 84 colleges of Panchmahals, Dahod, Mahisagar, Chhota Udaipur and Vadodra Rural districts. She also expressed her hope that with the emergence of this university, the tribal youth will get a golden opportunity to shine.

The CM also recalled the olden days when there was no education facilities available in this tribal belt. Today, she said, the state government has changed the entire scenario with opening of new schools, colleges, universities, ITIs, hostel facilities, etc. “We took care of the education and growth of the tribal children” , she added.


 Education Projects & Initiatives

Let the Campaign of Girl Child Education spread in every home, Let the Lamp of Educating daughters be lit up in every heart,Only then will be the vision of Swarnim Gujarat be realized.
Narendra Modi (Kanya Kelavani Mahotsav 2009)

Schemes Adopted to Enhance Education
Bal Pravesh | Mid Day Meal Schemes
Nirogi Bal
Vidhyalaxmi Bonds
Vidhya Deep Yojna
Teacher’s Training and Distance Teacher’s Training Program

‘Smart Goals’ with a future vision ‘Education for All’ is a major Project of the Education Department with its Continuous Education and Literacy Policies geared to promote Literacy, reduce drop out rates, Focus on Girl Education, Teachers’ Training and a series of other Initiatives being implemented.

Girl Education, Infrastructure, Health and Sanitation are the many areas in the process of continuous Education, Literacy, Edu Awareness and on path to enhancement in quality implementation. The Government vision is for SEE (Socio-Economic-Education) growth with primary education, secondary education, higher education, continuous education, literacy education, technical education, pharmacy education etc.

The focus is on Concentration of plan and non-plan provisions and best use of investments made in education sector and the purpose of development. It aims for UEE (universalisation of primary education) for children in age group 6 to 14 years with specific planning, target setting and power initiative key role to 100% male and female literacy by 2010.

The Campaign for ‘Education for All’ is implemented with Literacy initiatives like Training to 9000 teachers, covering all the students of Standards 4 and 7 under student Achievement profile, Extra coaching to girls studying in standards 2,3,4 and 5 in 12,500 schools to upgrade level by 10 to 15% in Gujarati and Arithmetic . It aims for increase in capability by 5 to 10% in writing, reading and calculating by students of standard-3.

Financial Aid schemes like Viidhyalaxmi Bond Yojna and Insurance schemes like Vidhyadeep Yojna are implemented by the Government to provide facilities to children and families to support Education. Health of School children is a prime concern for the Government and hence, with co-operation of WHO (World Health Organization, UNICEF, UNESCO) and World Bank “Health Developing School-Programme” pilot project pioneer in Gujarat.

Stressing upon the need of good education, Smt. Patel stated that because of the division of land within the family, the younger generation will now have to opt for a job for survival and for that, education plays a vital role.

In her speech, the CM informed about ‘Malnutrition free Gujarat’ campaign launched from Chhota Udaipur today morning. She also appealed to all the women to get the health of their children checked during this program. She shared that Gujarat is the first state in the country to launch a health program of this kind. She also gave information about MA Vatsalya Yojana, launched for the free treatment upto Rs. 2 lakh of the families earning less than Rs. 1.20 lakh per annum. She requested all the elected leaders to prepare a list of such families and send it to the health department to ensure that the poor did not die for want of treatment.

The Gujarat CM spoke about the campaign to be launched across the state from the 1st June by the health department to wipe out cases of deformity like cleft lips and cleft palate with the help of micro-surgery and also about orthodontic treatment to be provided absolutely free by the state government. She informed about free diabetes check-up camps and called the disease a silent killer. She also talked about state-wide screening campaign for breast and cervical cancer and added that ignoring early symptoms of such diseases can be risky. Smt. Patel requested everybody to take benefit of this drive with a motherly gesture.

Smt. Patel urged the women to put in their best efforts for creating toilet facility in their home and added that the state government has made it mandatory for every candidate contesting election to produce certificate of having toilet in home.

The CM, on this occasion, declared that a new arts and commerce college will be inaugurated shortly at Morva-Hadaf in Panchmahals. She also shared that as many as 11 new arts and commerce colleges, 2 new universities and 2 specialized universities have been planned by the state government to make Gujarat an education hub.

Talking about the existing practices in educational institutes, the CM stated that there is a need to change the mentality of the professors. She stated that ours is a developing country and multiple use of infrastructure and resources for economical development is necessary. She added that it is our moral responsibility to prepare competent future generation.

Education Minister Shri Bhupendrasinh Chudasma, Women & Child Welfare Minister of State Smt. Vasuben Trivedi, MP Shri Prabhatsinh Chauhan and Shri Jasvantsinh Bhabhor, MLAs, other dignitaries and youth of this area remained present on this occasion.

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Infrastructure Projects & Initiatives

These projects include
1.     Delhi – Mumbai Industrial Corridor and the Dholera Special Investment Region
2.     Dahej Petrochemical & Petroleum Investment Region (PCPIR)
3.     Metro rail system for Gandhinagar – Ahmedabad, other bus & rail based urban –transportation projects
4.     Gujarat Finance Tech city (GIFT) etc

In another unique initiative, the Government of Gujarat has started its own viability gap funding scheme to bridge the viability gap in infrastructure projects.

Gujarat Infrastructure comprise of
Extensive network of :
Education Infrastructure
Access Infrastructure
Power and Energy Infrastructure
Water Infrastructure
Industrial Infrastructure
Rural and Urban Development
Tele communication and IT Infrastructure

Gujarat has always believed that it is the infrastructure which will drive growth in various sectors of the economy as well as social well-being. Therefore Gujarat is the first state in the country to enact a legal framework for PPP in infrastructure sector – the Gujarat Infrastructure Development Board (GIDB).

GIDB was created in 1995 and was soon given the statutory status by enacting the Gujarat Infrastructure Development (GID) Act 1999. The GID Act provides a puts in a fair, transparent and dependable mechanism for selection of developers. Developers can be selected either through competitive bidding, Swiss challenge route or through direct negotiation after following certain criterion. GIDB has the mandate to shape up the projects and co-ordinate with various agencies.

Gujarat is today the front runner State in development and privatization of Infrastructure. With private participation a number of ports, roads, railways, hydro electric projects have been developed.

Gujarat can boast of the first ever big private port project in the country
Gujarat’s 40 Minor Ports, many in the private sector, handle around 80% of cargo handled by all private ports in India
The only Chemical port and tow LNG Terminals have been developed in the PPP format.
Two air strips have been developed by the private developers.
Several BOT/BOOT roads and railway lines are functional.

Over the years the GIDB and the Government agencies of Gujarat have acquired excellent capacity to structure and implement the PPP projects. There is constant effort to enhance this capacity through training and workshop. The state is keen and committed to transfer its expertise and track record of PPP in physical infrastructure to the social infrastructure sector.

While the focus on building the robust physical and industrial infrastructure continues, a number of projects have been taken up in the PPP mode in the Social sector:
for slum rehabilitation         water management
multi level parkings         bus terminals
tourism projects         hospital and training
educational institutions         others

Another defining feature of Gujarat infrastructure has been that the State has had a long term and integrated vision for development. The State has prepared a long term vision in the form of Blueprint for Infrastructure in Gujarat – 2020 (BIG 2020). The department envisages an investment of around Rs. 12.00 lakh crore by 2020 across various infrastructure sectors. The objective is to put Gujarat in the line of the developed countries in terms of infrastructure and at the same time to see that all the regions, activities and communities are benefited with the same.

The State has initiated projects which will re-define India’s economic history and will put the country in the high growth trajectory.


Tourism in Gujarat offers a Traveler’s Paradise. It offers a wide spectrum of Tourism sectors which sing in the glory of Gujarat’s rich culture and heritage. In addition to project development initiatives, several key tourism development initiatives have taken by the state. The ongoing Projects indicate a strong evolving commitment in the State to attract investments in the sector and reap its socio-economic benefits.

Current Locations for Project Development (2009):
Mandvi – Kutch
Dholavira – Kutch
Sasangir and Somnath – Junagadh
Champaner – Panchmahal
Dwarka – Jamnagar
Development of convention centre at Surat and Vadodara

Development of air strips for enhancing connectivity between the tourist destinations

Integrated Tourism Development Plan for 37 destinations is in pipeline and 24 eco tourism projects have been taken up at a cost of Rs. 21 crore. These projects include eco-trails, jungle stays, desert safaris etc.
Tele Communications and IT
Telecommunications and IT have played a key role in increasing work efficiency and enhancing public accessibility through e-governance. Gujarat Government focuses on growth and development of new & emerging technology areas. It has been increasingly using the ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) to offer citizen based service as per convenient location with an initiative to improve the reach, make services more transparent and reduce response time with reducing costs. The Government is also pro active in its Initiatives and ranks first state in the country to have made e-Governance functional in all its Municipalities and Municipal Corporations.

State Govt. has adopted Innovative, constructive and result oriented progressive policies for the promotion of e-governance in the State. Through the Nodal Agency, the Government’s Science and Technology Department positions Gujarat, as a Key State in the Knowledge Economy sector and acts as a medium to make Government-Citizen Interface more effective, transparent and efficient.

Gujarat is an aspiring leader with e-readiness Initiatives with the IT Policy 2006-2011. Independent agencies have ranked Gujarat amongst the top five States in terms of e-readiness.for its Network Policy and E-governance, Network Learning, Network Access and Network Society.
Rural and Urban Development
Rural and Urban Development is a continuous Project of the Gujarat State Government.

Gujarat is accelerating towards the process of urbanization and modernization due the fast growing economy of the State. State Government has merged 17 newly formed Nagarpalikas with municipal corporations of Ahmedabad, Surat, Vadodara and Jamnagar. The aim of this merger is to bring uniformity and rationalization in urban development of these four cities, which ultimately generates the potentials of development of various urban infrastructure like water supply, sewerage, roads, metro rails and other social amenities within the city.

The Government also has sought for World Bank Aid for its Projects. The Government envisages upgrading infrastructure in the towns like Bhavnagar, Jamnagar, Junagadh and Veraval so that these areas could attract more industrial investments.

Government has planned two mega urban projects for the city –“Ahmedabad Bus Rapid Transit System” is planned to cater to the local transportation needs; and “Metro Rail Ahmedabad” is being planned to meet the transportation requirements of Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar. Both these projects are to be implemented in a phased manner in order to make them financially feasible. These projects would ease traffic congestion.

Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) has been jointly implemented by the government, Development Board (GIDB), Ahmadabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) and Ahmadabad Urban Development Authority (AUDA). The total network of BRTS is 380 Km out of which 20 percent work was completed by August 2007 and it is envisaged that the project will complete by the year 2010.

For the diamond city of Surat, the Government has a dream project in order to provide better public transport facilities for the people. “Canal based transit corridor”, which is proposed to be developed on canal of about 30 kms in length, which connects the city form one end to another end. This will provide a thorough and uninterrupted traffic corridor to the commuters. It consists of development of road and rail corridor over the canal with the integrated development of surrounding areas also.

Conventional fuels such as diesel and petrol are being gradually replaced by Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), which aims to ensure better reliability, safety and security to consumers. As a part of the commitment of a ‘Cleaner-Greaner’ Environment, the government has initiated the process of converting all buses and auto rickshaws into CNG vehicles. The Government, through public and private bodies, is creating necessary CNG infrastructure for auto gas supply.
Industrial infrastructure
The Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation (GIDC) has set up 168 industrial estates and another 106 are being developed in different parts of the state. The State Government has Special Economic Zones at Kandla and Surat and a software technology park at Gandhinagar. GIDC plans to set up an apparel park in Surat. Additionally, GIDC has developed an industrial park in Dahej, which includes a petrochemical complex with facilities like a private airstrip, effluent collection and disposal, a liquid chemical port and railway lines.

To encourage investment in the state, Gujarat also gives autonomy and funds to industrial estates to implement maintenance and modernization measures. It is also encouraging organizations to set up units in these zones by giving them tax holidays and subsidies like exemption from stamp duty and registration fees.

The government is planning to cover 75 per cent population through the Water grid by 2010. The existing method of water conservation include:
87,179 check dams (Small weir constructed across rivulet having minimum discharge of 1 cusec after monsoon)
35,379 bori bandhs (Dams made of sand bags)
1,30,262 khet talavadi (Farm ponds) and
5,551 deepened ponds.

In regard to this, the government passed the Gujarat Water Users’ Participatory Irrigation Management Bill in the year 2007 authorizing the farmers to constitute Water Users’ Associations (WUA) for management of canals handed over, after rehabilitation by the Government.

Power is key to industry and Gujarat has a good record of consistent power supply for commercial use. The state has planned several initiatives to build adequate capacity in generation, transmission and distribution of power supply. These include rationalizing the power tariff structure, encouraging power generation from non-conventional sources, focusing on energy conservation and improving the quality of services to consumers.

As the largest producer of natural gas in India, Gujarat intends to set up an extensive state-wide gas grid to augment its existing power capacity. The grid will use gas supplied by the recently commissioned LNG terminals at Dahej.

In fact, by 2010, 20 per cent of the country’s energy needs will be met by natural gas and Gujarat would play a crucial role in fulfilling these requirements.
Access infrastructure
Gujarat has a 1,600 km indented coastline with I I intermediate, I major and 29 minor ports, which handle over 80 per cent of the port traffic in the country.

Gujarat was the first state to announce a separate Port Policy, which integrates the development of ports with Industrial Development, Power generation and Infrastructure Development. It was also the first state to privatize the construction of ports in the country.

Gujarat’s ports handle 20 per cent of the total cargo of the country. Kandla, India’s largest port handled 41.5 million reen of cargo in 2003-04. Other ports in the state, the Gujarat Pipavav Port at Pipavav (Saurashtra) and the recently commissioned Gujarat Adani Port at Mundra (Kutch) were the country’s first reenfield ports to be developed on a Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT) basis. Mundra is a state-of-the-art port that facilitates berthing of large vessels while Dahej in Gujarat is the country’s only chemical handling port. It is estimated that by 2015, Gujarat’s ports will handle 39 per cent of the country’s total cargo.

Gujarat also has a road network spanning across 74,000 km. It is also well connected by rail with 5,310 km of rail lines.

Though Gujarat is self sufficient in its needs for domestic and commercial water consumption, it has initiated plans for the maximum development and utilization of water resources in the state.

The Sardar Sarovar project will provide assured irrigation to 1.8 million hectares in Gujarat with water for domestic and industrial use in about 8,215 villages and 135 townships.

The state has undertaken extensive canal construction to supply water to the arid regions of Kutch. Also underway is Kalpasar, a multipurpose project that aims to build a dam across the Gulf of Khambhat with a tidal reservoir of 872 sq km.
Education infrastructure

The increasing growth of knowledge based Industries and increase in the need of technical man power, the State focus on a strong Academic foundation.

The state leads in labour productivity in the country and the highest proportion of the state’s populace is engaged in running owned businesses.

The state’s literacy rate stands at 69.1 per cent, which is higher than the national average of 65.38 per cent. Gujarat is home to India’s leading business school, the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (IIM-A) and other important institutions such as National Institute of Design (NID), National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT), the Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India (EDI), among others. The state also has 25 engineering colleges, 26 management institutions and 300 technical institutes.

The State Government plans to establish a Shipbuilding University, a first of its kind in the country in the district of Kutch. A Children’s University ‘Bal Gokulam’ is also in the pipeline.

The Government has also charted out plans to enroll 525,000 girls in the state in Kanya Kelavani drive. It foresees a vision 2010 that, when Gujarat celebrates its golden Jubilee, there should be a zero – ‘0’ percent drop out rate in Gujarat (Literally No Drop Outs).

The Industrial Development in the state provides vast potential for setting up of new Educational Institutes in areas of :
Marine Engineering         Port Management
Gems and Jewellery design         Fishery and Fish processing
Urban Planning         Disaster Management
The state has high life expectancy levels, low birth and death rates and a low infant mortality rate. 72.3 per cent of Gujarat’s population is below the age of 45. The state has 1,637 government hospitals and 1,070 primary health centres


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